the plain was distressed by the weight of the elephants … The two leaders were as dragons, struggling with each other with the fury of tigers.The sky was covered with a dark cloud from which rained swords, arrows, and spears. drag him down, and then he cut off his head.” Then the Muslim reinforcements charged. 18-36, supported by Patel; for the translation of the passage on Chāngā Āsā, see Dhabhar, p. There is a hint that it had been installed in Navsari by the time of the second rivayat, often referred to also as the rivayat of Nariman Hōšang (though he is not said to be the bearer of the letter) dated 1480 or 1485 (Paymaster, 1954, p. In short it seems that the Irān-šāh was moved to Navsari sometime in the late 15th century, and that a precise date cannot be given. 82, for a slightly later date, namely 1182, see also Kamerkar and Dhunjisha), but the community there disappears from Parsi history after the “sack” of Sanjān. It has generally been interpreted as indicating a migration from Sanjān northwards to Broach (Bharuch), Navsari, Ankleshwar, and Cambay, but, as Eduljee points out (Eduljee, 1991, p.It is a feasible that these were regarded as the main Parsi settlements at the time (Dhabhar, pp. A is the terrible hardships suffered by Iranian Zoroastrians, who interpreted their suffering as signs of the final assault of evil before a savior would come and the renovation commence.
Some of the regions, for instance, Sanjān and Navsari, long predate that period. The problem was a delicate one, because Parsi priests then (and now) are not paid a salary for rites performed.
As the Parsis moved around the region, disputes, sometimes violent, erupted over priestly rights and privileges. When the lay people of Navsari requested Sanjana priests to perform their family ceremonies, bitter disputes arose. It was a long-lasting conflict involving appeals to secular courts.
Then the Ghaznavid ruler, Sultan Maḥmud, pledged to add Sanjān to his kingdom.
His army advanced on Sanjān “like a black cloud.” The Parsis stood alongside the Hindus. The sultan’s forces included not only horsemen but elephants “…
Various Parsi scholars have attempted to identify this invasion with known external history, but with no clear conclusion (S. Because the route to Bansda was impassable during monsoons, Irān-šāh was eventually moved to Navsari at the behest of a legendary leader, Chāngā Āsā. The sea-borne trade between western India and the Persian Gulf (and to East Africa and China) dated back centuries (Kearney).
The Parsi migrants were not therefore venturing into unknown territory, but to a region with which Iranians had long traded.
60-70) that these traditions seek to explain why certain Parsi practices have evolved by imbuing them with an aura of historical legitimacy and authority, harking back to the covenant reached with the Hindu ruler when they first settled in India.
The outlines the common Parsi perception of the pattern of their settlement in western India.
The is the tradition that has become the focus of communal and consequently academic attention and should be viewed, as convincingly demonstrated by Susan Stiles Maneck (pp. 277-88), not primarily as a historical source but as an example of a particular genre of Persian poetic literature (it is composed in Persian couplets), with theological and apocalyptic overtones that owe much to Islamic convention, especially in the opening doxology, the praise to God “the Giver, the Merciful, the Just … An extensive collection of such notes is in Seervai and Patel (see also Mirza, pp. There are indications of Iranian Zoroastrians in India about whose history we know little.