, said, "One can live magnificently in this world if one knows how to work and how to love" (Troyat, 1967, p. Freud is purported to have said that the goal of psychotherapy is to allow the patient to love and to work (Erikson, 1963).
The themes of love and work are central to some of the most influential theories of psychological well-being (e.g., Erikson, 1963; Maslow, 1954; Rogers, 1961); their importance for healthy functioning has been empirically documented (e.g., Baruch, Barnett, & Rivers, 1983; Gurin, Veroff, & Feld, 1960; Lee & Kanungo, 1984; Vaillant, 1977). We ask this question in the context of a program of research on love (Hazan & Shaver, 1987; Shaver & Hazan, 1987, 1988; Shaver, Hazan, & Bradshaw, 1988), which we have studied from the perspective of attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969, 1973, 1980, 1988).
Research on work has focused primarily on aspects of the work environment that influence job satisfaction (e.g., Fiedler, 1967; Kohn & Schooler, 1973; Levinson, 1969; Parker, 1983), for the most part ignoring possible links between satisfaction with work and satisfaction with relationships (see Piotrkowski, 1978, for an exception).
In the Ainsworth Strange Situation, these infants were preoccupied with their mother's availability, and this preoccupation precluded exploration.
Mothers of avoidant infants appeared rejecting and tended to rebuff or deflect their infants' bids for proximity, especially for close bodily contact.
(For details, see Hazan & Shaver, 1987.)Adult work activity can be viewed as functionally parallel to what Bowlby calls exploration: For adults, work (like early childhood play and exploration) is a major source of actual and perceived competence.
Adults' tendencies to seek and maintain proximity to an attachment figure and to move away from that figure in order to interact with and master the environment are expressed, among other ways, in romantic love relationships and in productive work.
We are not claiming that all or even most jobs are well suited for maintaining interest and competence, but at this point in human evolution and cultural organization, work necessarily provides one of the major opportunities for exploration and mastery.
Moreover, although today's jobs may be far from ideal, they do offer important gratifications for adults, as evidenced by the high proportion of people holding both low- and high-prestige jobs who say they derive satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment from their work (Robinson, 1984).
According to Bowlby, attachment and exploration are linked as follows: To learn about and become competent at interacting with the physical and social environment, one must explore.
But exploration can be tiring and even dangerous, so it is desirable to have a protector nearby, a haven of safety to which one can retreat.
(1978), who identified three patterns of infant attachment: secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent.